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Gallipoli and the Ottoman Jews

A travelling exhibition entitled ‘The Gallipoli War – The 1st World War and the Ottoman Jews’ will be available to public at Mekor Hayim Synagogue in the Turkish town of Canakkale between 15 March and 15 April. Canakkale is the city where Gallipoli campaign took place. The exhibition is organised by “The 500th Year Foundation”.

Jewish officers of the Ottoman army in Gallipoli

Jewish officers (from Ottoman Palestine – modern Israel) in Ottoman army

A total of 66 historical pieces consisting of visual materials and stories will be exhibited. The exhibition, which consists of five main sections, starts with a petition sent to the Ottoman King Abdulhamid II by the Ottoman Jews, calling him to allow Ottoman Jews to join the Ottoman army. There are also stories of Ottoman Jewish soldiers fighting for and sacrificing their lives for their country at the various fronts of the Ottoman army including Sarikamish, Galicia and the Gallipoli.

Dressed in his Turkish Officer uniform in Gallipoli - Moshe Sharett was the second Prime Minister of Israel, serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurion's two terms

Israel’s 2nd PM Moshe Sharett, dressed as a Turkish Officer in Gallipoli

About 558 non-Muslim Ottoman soldiers lost their lives during Gallipoli campaign. Although often overlooked, the participation of the Ottoman Jews in the Gallipoli campaign is highlighted at the exhibition which received considerable contribution from Çanakkale 18 Mart University Assoc. Dr. Mithat Atabay.

Moshe Sharett, The second Prime Minister of Israel, had also served as First Lieutenant in the Ottoman Army during the Gallipoli Campaign.

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Soccer players and athletes who died in Gallipoli

The Anzac resilience and the Gallipoli campaign helped shape Australia’s national identity. Gallipoli Campaign however is a very important event in Turkish history as well. Gallipoli Battle was the last battle Ottoman Empire had to face after fighting against allied armies at various fronts in Africa, Asia, middle-east and Europe. It was the battle where the nation had to use its last resources – basically whoever was available to fight fought with whatever they had left to fight with. Therefore teachers, engineers, athletes, doctors and school principals from all Ottoman nations (including Greek, Armenian and Jewish volunteers) all had to sacrifice to help Turkish army at Gallipoli.

Hasnub Galib of Galatasaray, was a soccer and a hockey player. He died in Canakkale fighting the Anzacs

Hasnub Galib of Galatasaray, was a soccer and a hockey player. He died in Canakkale fighting the Anzacs

Turkish Soccer Federation published a list of soccer players who died during Balkan Wars(1912) and Defense of Canakkale (Gallipoli Campaign).

The list was compiled by Mehmet Yuce who sourced the names from the prominent Ottoman military magazine “Donanma” (The Navy) of the time.

The Donanma (Navy) magazine of the Ottoman Army

The cover of the Donanma (Navy) magazine of the Ottoman Army. The magazine featured the soccer players and athletes serving in the army during Gallipoli campaign.

BEŞIKTAŞ

Athletes and soccer players who died:

  • Kâzım Bey (sprinter- runner, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Âsım Bey (Soccer player, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Ali Bey (Soccer player, volunteer soldier)

Athletes and soccer players fought:

  • Muallim Kenan Bey (Boxing and wrestling instructor)
  • Ahmet Fetgeri Bey (Physical education instructor)
  • Alâaddin Bey (goalkeeper – Non-commissioned officer)
  • Mehmet Bey (Soccer player, volunteer soldier)
  • Fuad Bey (Soccer player and wrestler)
  • Resul Bey (Goalkeeper, sprinter, Army veterinarian)
  • Sabri Bey (Soccer player, Assistant Physio)
  • Genç Mehmet Bey (jumper, pilot)
  • Cemâl Efendi (defender, sprinter- runner, sub-officer)
  • Cevdet Efendi (Soccer player and sprinter- runner)
  • Aziz Efendi (hockey player, cannon officer)
  • İzzet Efendi (high jumper, navy)
  • Hikmet Bey (hammer thrower, navy)

GALATASARAY

The soccer players who died:

  • Abdurrahman Robenson Bey (general captain and scout leader, physio)
  • Hasnûn Gâlib Bey (soccer and hockey second team captain, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Neşet Bey (hockey team captain, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Hâlid Fuad Bey (son of Müşir Fuad Paşazâde) (second team Soccer player, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Mehmet Ali Bey (son of Enver Paşazâde) (Soccer player)
  • Refik Ata Bey (Soccer player)
  • Cemil Bey (Soccer player)
  • Hasib Bey (son of Ali Paşazâde)
  • Nazmi Bey (Soccer player)

The soccer players who were wounded:

  • Yusuf Ziya Bey (first-team soccer team inner forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • YakubRobenson Bey (Soccer player, soldier)
  • Feyzi Robenson Bey(Soccer player, pilot)

Those who served during the war:

  • Celâl Bey (first-team soccer central forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Kemâl Niyazi Bey (team captain, cannon officer)
  • Ahmed Robenson Bey (rowing team captain and first-team soccer goal keeper, officer)
  • Kenan Bey (Boxing and wrestling team captain)
  • Emin Bülend Bey (soccer first-team team captain and left forward)
  • Emil Oberle Bey (soccer instructor and first-team central forward, heavy cannon operator)
  • Ahmed Adnan Bey (first-team soccer and hockey defender)
  • Ahmed Cevat Bey (first-team soccer and hockey defender, cannon operator)
  • Sedat Bey (first-team soccer left back)
  • Hüseyin Bey (first-team soccer right back, hockey defender)
  • Cevat Bey (first-team soccer team right back)
  • İbrahim Bey (first-team soccer team right back and hockey first-team team forward)
  • Jozef (Joseph) Oberle Bey (first-team soccer team right forward, volunteer at German army)
  • Nasreddin Bey (first-team soccer team forward)
  • Vehbi Bey (first-team soccer team right defender)
  • Sitar Bey (first-team soccer team forward)
  • Behçet Bey (first-team soccer team defender)
  • Naki Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Edip Bey (reserve soccer team, second lieutenant)
  • Avni Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Ahmet Ali Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Ahmet Muhtar Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Ömer Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Muammer Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Ferid Bey (reserve soccer team, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Âsım Bey (goalkeeper)
  • Mahir Sâfi Bey (rowing team, army driver)
  • Âkif Sâfi Bey (rowing team)
  • Ârif Bey (rowing and reserve soccer team)
  • Selim Bey (sailing captain)
  • Hüsameddin Bey (rowing team)
  • Emin Bey (sailing team)
  • İsmet Bey (hockey)
  • Sıdkı Bey (first-team hockey team goalkeeper)
  • Kemâl Bey (sailing)
  • Şükrü Bey (Sprinter)
  • Adnan Bey (scout team)
  • Osman Kenan Bey (scout)
  • Müfid Bey (scout team)
  • Kâzım Bey (scout team)
  • Neyir Bey (boxing team)
  • Cemâl Bey (soccer)
  • Cemâl Hüseyin Bey
  • İsmail Bey

 

FENERBAHÇE

Those who died and fought:

  • Gâlib Bey (first-team soccer team team captain)
  • Yahya Bey (physio)
  • Kemâl Bey (died)
  • Nüzhet Bey (first-team soccer)
  • Said Bey (first-team soccer)
  • Zeki Bey (supply officer)
  • Sâfi Bey (supply officer)
  • Hâfid Bey (Officer)
  • Cemî Bey
  • Nuri Bey (first-team soccer)
  • Sadık Bey (first-team soccer
  • Rüşdü Bey (scout)
  • Osman Bey (soccer)
  • Fahri Bey (rowing)
  • Sezai Bey
  • Burhaneddin Bey
  • Hulki Bey (rowing)
  • Ömer Bey (supply officer)
  • Garî Bey (soccer first-team)
  • Afif Bey (officer)
  • Bedri Bey (officer)
  • Hâfid Bey (officer)
  • Ferik Bey (officer)
  • Kemâl Bey (officer)
  • Emin Bey (officer)
  • Zeki Bey (physio)
  • Nebil Bey
  • Vasıf Bey
  • Şevki Bey
  • Servet Bey
  • Kenan Bey
  • Sabri Bey (first-team soccer)
  • İsmail Bey
  • Ata Bey
  • Rauf Bey
  • Şakir Bey (supply, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Vehbi Bey (soccer first-team)
  • Ârif Bey (soccer first-team )
  • Nureddin Bey (died)
  • Mehmed Bey (second lieutenant)
  • Nureddin Bey
  • Cemâl Bey
  • Wilhelm Kohlhammer (soccer, German soldier)
  • Mehmed Nasuhi Bey (soccer, supply officer)
  • Edhem Bey (soccer, supply officer)
  • Manço Salahaddin Bey
  • Süreyya Mithat Bey (first-team soccer)
  • Mustafa Behçet Bey (physio)
  • Müfid Bey (supply officer)
  • Sami Bey (supply officer)
  • Mithat Bey
Arif Bey, was perhaps the most famous of the Fenerbahce players who fought in the war (Standing on back line, the second from right).

Arif Bey, was perhaps the most famous of the Fenerbahce players who fought in the war (Standing on back line, the second from right).

 

 

ANADOLU CLUB

Those who serverd:

  • Kemâl Bey (center forward, officer)
  • Raif Bey (defender, officer)
  • Efhem Bey (defender, officer)
  • İlhami Bey (goalkeeper, officer)
  • Nasuhi Bey (forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Macid Bey (forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Hüseyin Bey (defender, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Hâlid Bey (forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Şevket Bey (defender, chemist)
  • Azmi Bey (defender, Assistant Physio)
  • Sadullah Bey (defender, corporal)
  • Hüsnü Bey (defender, officer)
  • Kemâl Bey (forward, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Salahaddin Bey (defender, supply officer)
  • İbrahim Bey (defender, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Mehmet Bey (defender, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Cevat Bey (defender, pilot)
  • Yusuf Kenan Bey (defender, officer)
  • Mısırlı Yusuf Bey (forward, officer)
  • İbrahim Zemçi Bey (defender, private)
  • Hayrettin Bey (defender, red-crescent)
  • Rasim Bey (forward, officer)
  • Mehmet Ali Bey (defender, officer)
  • Hakkı Bey (defender, secretary)
  • Ali Osman Bey (defender, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Remzi Bey (forward, officer)
  • Şemsi Bey (goalkeeper, sub officer)
  • Kadıköylü Hasan Bey (center defender, army driver)
  • Saadettin Bey (goalkeeper, officer)
  • Raif Bey (defender, officer)
  • Kâzım Bey (defender, officer)
  • Fazıl Kani Bey (defender, Non-commissioned officer)
  • Eşref Bey (goalkeeper, Non-commissioned officer
  • Mazhar Bey (goalkeeper, Non-commissioned officer)
Ahmet Fetgeri, who served during the war, was among the founders of Besiktas Gymnastics Club.

Ahmet Fetgeri, who served during the war, was among the founders of Besiktas Gymnastics Club.

TÜRK IDMAN OCAĞI CLUB

Those who died:

  • Mehmet Sedat Bey (club doctor)

Those who served:

  • İbrahim Bey (supply officer, gymnast)
  • Mehmet Fuat Bey (baytar, soccer team forward)
  • Fahri Bey (baytar, Non-commissioned officer, soccer team forward)
  • Burhan Bey (supply officer, soccer team forward)
  • Hulûsi Bey (supply officer, soccer team centre defender, captain)
  • Vefik Bey (supply officer, soccer team defender)
  • Nureddin Bey (supply officer, soccer team defender)
  • Suat Bey (supply officer, soccer team forward)
  • Nuri Bey (supply officer, gymnast
  • Saim Bey (soldier, gymnast)
  • Şerafeddin Bey (soldier, gymnast)
  • Hayri Bey (soldier, soccer team defender)
  • Vâhid Bey (soldier, gymnast)
  • Abdullah Bey (soldier, soccer team forward)
  • Muzaffer Bey (soldier, soccer team defender)
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Rare Turkish photos from the Gallipoli Campaign

Priceless pictures and postcards of Turkish forces at Gallipoli have emerged to set the scenes of Turkish soldiers in action almost a century after the legendary battle.

Galatasaray soccer player Hasnub Galib who died in Gallipoli

Galatasaray soccer player Hasnub Galib who died in Gallipoli

Turkish army after a prayer session

Turkish army after a prayer session

The cover of the Navy magazine

The cover of the Navy magazine

The Turkish Admiral Cevdet Pasa

The Turkish Admiral Cevdet Pasa

Fenerbahce Soccer players

Fenerbahce Soccer players

A french post card depicting the Turkish prisoners

A French post card depicting the Turkish prisoners

Turkish infantry

Turkish infantry

An officer posing with his children before Gallipoli campaign

An officer posing with his children before Gallipoli campaign

A postcard by The Red Crescent

A postcard by The Red Crescent

Birds-eye view of Gallipoli

Birds-eye view of Gallipoli

The sufi volunteers of the Mawlawi order join Turkish army

The sufi volunteers of the Mawlawi order join Turkish army

Ottoman Empire joins the war

Ottoman Empire joins the war

The Turkish Navy Destroyer Yavuz (Goben)

The Turkish Navy Destroyer Yavuz (Goben)

A Turkish postcard

A Turkish postcard

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The Ottomans discussed fashion as well

The arguments on the Islamic way of dress, in fact, are not so recent. The Ottoman journalists especially in the last centuries of the empire often got into the same topic.

While the “Islamic fashion” industry is developing and becoming popular among Muslim masses, many critics criticize the designers for giving into a more seductive logic. The designers approach is found to be inconsistent with the spirit of the “hejab” in Islam. But contrary to what one might think, these controversies are not so recent.

Ottoman Women's fashion magazine

Kadinlar Dunyasi magazine

The women’s magazines from the Ottoman era, such as The Ladies LogHanimlara mahsus Gazete ), Beauties (Mehasin) or World of Women (Kadinlar Dünyasi) touchbased on the topic more than a hundred years ago. The Ottoman women in the last centuries of the Empire were struggling to position their fashion styles because although they wanted to westernize their clothing styles they also wanted to remain faithful to the Ottoman traditions.

OTTOMAN FASHION: BALANCING RELIGION AND AESTHETICS

Their concerns were similar to the concerns of many Muslim youth of today who are wanting to follow the contemporary fashion without renouncing the Islamic requirements.

From 1908 to 1922, during the second constitutional period of the Ottoman Empire, Western fashion was especially criticized with religious arguments. “Hanimlara mahsus Gazete” noted that the “hejab” was losing its identity and expressed regret that more and more women were turning away from the Islamic way of dressing.

Women's fashion magazines from Ottoman era

However the criticisms gradually took an aesthetic turn, especially with the magazine Mehasin published in 1908. This magazine was a pioneer in ladies magazines as it relied heavily on photos. Although the magazine would even publish photos of women’s underwear, it criticized the excessiveness makeup and attire. The magazine also recommended its readers to dress more humble like the English aristocrats rather than following the French style and coquetry. To summarize, Mehasin absolutely supported Western fashion and even recommended to the Turkish women. Mehasin was instrumental in cementing the belief that “one had to follow the fashion trends”.

STRUGGLING TO CREATE A LOCAL FASHION STYLE

The Kadinlar Dünyasi magazine which was first published in 1913 was a unique publication as it had no male writers. Like Hanimlara mahsus Gazete, the main question they focused on was to build a clean Ottoman fashion. The magazine even suggested opening an association to build and to defend a national fashion. The mission of this association would be to check with historians about women’s fashion, to check with the doctors the requirements in terms of health, to offer creative new models, etc. But this project could not succeed because the although the Western influences were regularly criticized, the Ottoman style also suffered from heavy criticism.

The “Conservative fashion” in Turkey is also awaiting the same fate as the so-called Islamic fashion brands show little consistency in mixing cultural values and aesthetics.